When we pick up a book, we’re carried away down the currents of story into a world of imagination. We can float with Twain down the Mississippi, and have Jim show us what it means to be good. But on our journey, we should also keep in mind that the terrain has changed.
What are the stories that will carry us into a new era?
Energy is all around us, a physical quantity that follows precise natural laws. Our universe has a finite amount of it; it’s neither created nor destroyed but can take different forms, such as kinetic or potential energy, with different properties and formulas to remember.
You already know that a trip to the beach can give you a nasty sunburn, but the nitty gritty of sun safety is actually much more complex. Wrinkle-causing UVA rays and burn-inducing UVB’s can pose a serious risk to your health (and good looks).
For Tolkien, Elvish was a hobby rather than an attempt to create something people could actually speak. Much of the Elvish the characters speak inThe Lord of the Ringsmovies has been made up since Tolkien by dedicated fans of Elvish based on guesses as to what Tolkien would have constructed. That’s the best we can do for Elvish because there are no actual Elves around to speak it for us.
Have we mentioned that we asked some of our favorite educators and staff to weigh in on the best books for students, teachers and all other summertime scholars to crack into during the break? Check out our summer reading recommendations!
Modern conlangs, including Klingon, are developed enough that you can actually speak them. However, speaking Klingon would mean getting used to pronouncing k with your uvula - that weird, cartoony thing hanging in the back of your throat. Believe it or not, you actually do that in plenty of languages around the world, like Eskimo ones.
Real languages change over time. There’s no such thing as a language that’s the same today as it was a thousand years ago. Things change in conlangs, too. In The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien charted out ancient and newer versions of Elvish.
The first Elvish word for people was kwendi. But in the language of one of the groups that moved away (the Teleri), over time, kwendi became pendi. Among the Avari, who spread throughout Middle Earth, kwendi became kindi when the w dropped out.
Just spotted this great collection of TED-Ed GIFs from Roberto!
Particles come in pairs, which is why there should be an equal amount of matter and antimatter in the universe. Yet, scientists have not been able to detect any in the visible universe. Where is this missing antimatter? CERN scientist Rolf Landua returns to the seconds after the Big Bang to explain the disparity that allows humans to exist today.